Basic Concepts of Particle Characterization
What is a particle?How can particles be distinguished by size?What is particle size distribution?How to describe the particle size distribution?What are the differences between different distribution types?What is equivalent spherical diameter?Why do we use equivalent spherical diameter?How to determine mean, median, and mode?What is D50?What are D[4,3] and D[3,2]?Which methods can be used for particle size analysis?What are the advantages and disadvantages of different particle sizing methods?What are frequency and cumulative distributions?How do we calculate repeatability?Why is repeatability so important?What is reproducibility?Why is reproducibility so important?What are the differences between repeatability and reproducibility?What are the factors that affect repeatability and reproducibility?What are the acceptable error ranges of repeatability?What is accuracy and how do we calculate it?What is a certified reference material (CRM)?What is a working standard?What is the relationship between mesh and micron?
Static and Dynamic Image Analysis
What is particle image analysis?Why is particle shape so important?What is static and dynamic image analysis?What are the advantages of static image analysis?What are the advantages of dynamic image analysis?What is image binarization?What is calibration coefficient?Why is sheath fluid applied in dynamic image analysis when using the wet method?How to calculate the projected area and the contour of a particle?What is panoramic mode?How to characterize particles with image analysis?What are the differences between measurement results obtained by image analysis and laser diffraction particle size analysis?
Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analysis
How are particles dispersed when using the wet method?How are particles dispersed when using the dry method?What is obscuration?What is the background signal?What are refractive index and absorption coefficient?What are the factors that affect background?What is the effect of refractive index on laser diffraction particle size analysis?What are the commonly used media and requirements?What are the requirements of the water used for laser diffraction particle size analysis?How to choose a proper obscuration range?What are the Mie scattering and Fraunhofer diffraction theories?How is a measurement made with a laser diffraction particle size analyzer?Which materials can be analyzed by a laser diffraction particle size analyzer?How many methods are there for sampling?What are the advantages and disadvantages of semiconductor laser?What are the advantages and disadvantages of helium-neon laser?What are the differences between different analysis modes?What is resolution and how to verify it?What are the factors that affect resolution?What should we be aware of when measuring neodymium magnet powder?What is a surfactant?What is an online particle size analyzer?What are the differences between online, inline, atline, and offline analyses?What are the differences between online particle size analyzers and particle size analyzers in the laboratory?How to protect the lens in the online particle size analyzer from contamination when using the dry method?What is a spray particle size analyzer?What is spray particle size analyzer typical used for?
Powder Characterization Analysis
What are bulk and tapped densities and how to measure them?What are the compressibility and Hausner ratio?What are the angle of repose, the angle of fall, and the angle of difference?How to measure the angle of repose?What is flowability? What is powder characterization?What are true and skeletal densities of a powder and how to measure them?How to measure the angle of internal friction?What is angle of spatula?Which features of powder affect flowability?What is floodability?
Nanoparticle Size and Zeta Potential Analysis
What is dynamic light scattering (DLS)？What is DLS backscattering technique?What is zeta potential？What is electrophoretic light scattering(ELS)?What is static light scattering (SLS)?What is Brownian motion?What are Z-average and polydispersity index (PDI)?What is molecular weight and why is it so important?What is phase analysis light scattering (PALS)?
Optical Particle Counting Analysis
What are the advantages of the combination of light extinction and light scattering techniques?How to calculate the number of particles and measure the particle size with an optical particle counter?What is a flat top laser beam?Is laser beam shaping necessary for optical particle counting and sizing?What is the effect of the sample flow velocity on the measurement accuracy?What is an optical particle counter?What are the advantages of a flat top laser beam?What are the differences between light extinction and laser diffraction technique?In which field is the optical particle counter applied most?How to measure high-viscosity samples with an optical particle counter?